Cancer Surgery



Mr Rao is trained in state of the art treatment with da Vinci Robotic prostatectomy for treatment of localized prostate cancer. Robotics provides the benefit of minimally invasive surgery with the added dexterity and precision allowed by the robot.


The majority of kidney cancers are treated laparoscopically (keyhole). This has been of great benefit over the conventional open technique. Patients are much more comfortable due to the very small incisions that are used to perform the surgery.
Some small kidney tumours may be suitable for partial nephrectomy. This has generally been performed as an open operation but some tumours can be removed laparoscopically or even robotically. The other treatment option that is offered via the Royal Melbourne Hospital is Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA). This involved killing the tumour cells with radiofrequency waves.


There are a great range of bladder cancers, some that are superficial (surface tumours) and others that penetrate into the muscle or deeper layers. Initially an endoscopic procedure (TURBT- transurethral resection of bladder tumour) is performed to remove the tumour and obtain pathology. Superficial tumours may also be treated with some medicine that is put directly into the bladder to try and reduce recurrences. It is also very important that the bladder is inspected periodically to detect recurrences early.
For tumours involving the muscle, the options include surgery or radiotherapy. Removal of the entire bladder then requires a diversion operation. This is usually into a small segment of detached small bowel (ileum). This segment is then brought to the skin as a stoma. A collection bag is placed over the stoma to catch the urine.


Testicular cancer is treated with an inguinal orchidectomy. This means removing the testicle via a groin incision. Prior to surgery special blood tests are sent off (tumour markers) and staging of abdomen and chest is done with CT scans. After the final pathology and staging is performed follow up will be with a Medical Oncologist where discussion will occur about whether further treatment is required.

Graphical Displays of Various Cancer Types